A practical guide to troubleshooting pallidal deep brain stimulation issues in patients with dystonia

Abstract

High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal portion of the globus pallidus has, in the last two decades, become a mainstream therapy for the management of medically-refractory dystonia syndromes. Such increasing uptake places an onus on movement disorder physicians to become familiar with this treatment modality, in particular optimal patient selection for the procedure and how to troubleshoot problems relating to sub-optimal efficacy and therapy-related side effects.